Thursday, September 19, 2019
Anti-Semitism Discrimination and prejudice have been in our world for as long as humans have themselves. Discrimination has caused problems in societies all throughout history. But despite all of the terrible things that have happened because of prejudice and discrimination, it continues to live on in our world today. Anti-Semitism, prejudice against Jews, is a form of discrimination that has caused perhaps the most problems throughout history. Many people describe anti-Semitism as more than simply "prejudice" or "discrimination" against Jews. It is often the result of hatred and despise of the Jews, resulting in persecution and destruction. Anti-Semitism can often occur because a religious group is trying to make itself look better (Anti-Judaism/Anti-Semitism). Jealousy and envy are also major causes of anti-Semitism. A study on anti-Semitism found that people who are anti-Semitic are likely to also have negative feelings about African-Americans, Immigrants, gays and lesbians, illegal aliens, and women (JCRC - Anti-Semitism). As have all prejudices, anti-Semitism has been around a long time. It has been around since the time of Christ. One of the first events that gave rise to anti-Semitism was the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ (Mrs. Hahn's Notes). Jews were considered the murderers of Christ. Because of this hatred towards Jews, Jerusalem was destroyed, killing over 1 million Jews who resided there (A Calendar of Jewish Persecution). Jews were also persecuted extensively throughout the Roman Empire. In 135 AD, Roman Emperor Hadrian declared Jerusalem a pagan city. He forbade Jews to practice circumcision, the reading of the Law, eating of unleavened bread at Passover, or any Jewish festival. In 315, Constantine the G... ...ll eventually be gone along with all prejudices. Bibliography: BIBLIOGRAPHY Anti-Judaism/Anti-Semitism. (Online) http://www.yale.edu/adhoc/research_resources/dictionary/limited/anti_semitism.html Anti-Semitism...What Is It? (Online) http://www.cdn-friends-icej.ca/antiholo/summanti.html A Calendar of Jewish Persecution. (Online) http://www.hearnow.org/caljp.htm Definitions of Anti-Semitism (Online) http://www.cdn-friends-icej.ca/antiholo/defantis.html Jewish Community Relations Council - Anti-Semitism. (Online) http://www.jcrc.org/main/antisemi.htm Modern Anti-Semitism. (Online) http://www.remember.org/guide/History.root.modern.html A Summary of Anti-Semitism (Online) http://www.cdn-friends-icej.ca/antiholo/history.html Steven, Peter. "European Anti-Semitism-Disturbing, But Limited," The Miami Herald, May 22, 1990. Pg. 1A+
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Standardized tests are unnecessary because they are excruciating to the minds of many innocent students. Each year, the tests get tougher and stricter until the students cannot process their own thoughts. The tests become torturous to the minds of those only starting in the world of tests. The students already battling in the war are continuing to fall deeper and deeper into the world of uncreativity and narrowness. As the walls narrow in on them, they are lost and unable to become innovative thinkers. Moreover, the implementation of standardized tests into the public school systems of the United States of America has controversially raised two different views Ã¢â¬âthe proponents versus the opponents in the battle of the effectiveness of standardized tests. Standardized tests require all test takers to answer the same questions; the tests are also scored in a standard manner. Thus, the education system believes that it is fair for everybody to take the same test because it is pre paring students for college learning. In reality, intelligence cannot solely be determined by a test score; therefore, standardized tests are ineffective in encouraging learning in educational environments for three reasons: they are stressful, discriminatory, and uncreative. Throughout the history of standardized testing in the United States of America, citizens have viewed the test as an effective tool to build a society on excellence and success. Furthermore, standardized tests have developed and spread in various public schools as an unproblematic way to test a large amount of students quickly. Educators use test scores to evaluate student performance, teacher proficiency, and school effectiveness. However, standardized tests are not the best way to te... ...ningful projects that can be used in real life. Works Cited Fletcher, Dan. Ã¢â¬Å"Standardized Testing.Ã¢â¬ Times. Times, 11 Dec. 2009. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. Popham, James. Ã¢â¬Å"Why Standardized Tests DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Measure Educational Quality.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Educational Leadership 56.6 (1999): 8-15. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. Rooks, Noliwe M. Ã¢â¬Å"Why ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Time to Get Rid Of Standardized Tests.Ã¢â¬ Times. Times, 11 Oct. 2013. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. Sarason, Irwin G. Ã¢â¬Å"Stress, Anxiety, and Cognitive Interference: Reactions to Tests.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46.4 (1984): 929-38. PsycARTICLES. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. Schmidt, Peter. Ã¢â¬Å"Sunday Dialogue: Too Tethered to Tests?Ã¢â¬ New York Times. New York Times, 12 Oct. 2013. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. Strauss, Valerie. Ã¢â¬Å"Have Standardized Tests Really Helped Kids Learn More?Ã¢â¬ Washington Post. Washington Post, 30 Apr. 2013. Web. 29 Nov. 2013.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Historical Interpretations Role in The of a national or international policy for Cultural Heritage Protection Essay
The main difference between approaches to Cultural Heritage Protection, as discussed by Muller, namely between Ã¢â¬Å"object-centrismÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"functionalismÃ¢â¬ is associated with the fact that the first approach regards the cultural object and its protection as a value in its own right, while the latter focuses on the cultural object in the context of its meaning for society and its processes of acculturation and socialization. Object-centrism advocates primacy of the cultural object rather than its value, be it artistic or economic (Muller, 1998). Artworks of the past are seen as valuable treasures, and the integrity of entire set of objects produced by a certain culture has to be protected. Object-centrism scholars Ã¢â¬Å"focus on the primacy of the heritage object, considering that it has a value existing independently of people that should not be susceptible to any changeÃ¢â¬ (Loulanski, 2006, p. 215). This approach also argues for the necessity of protection of information about a given culture, and cultural objects serve as a source of such information. Thus, while archaeology is a typical example of the philosophy of object-centrism, anthropology also fits in the picture by virtue of preserving information and data about cultures. As concerns the answer to the question which is at the heart of the debate on Cultural Heritage Protection, namely whether nation state or international community should be the guardian of cultural heritage, object-centrism only cares about the safety and integrity of the cultural object and not the nature of its stewardship. Proponents of object-centrism argue that practical value of the cultural object is hard to determine, since it might have little utility now but be of great importance for future generations. And in the light of little connection between ancient and modern societies, ancient heritage is worth preservation in it own right. However, this approach has come in for much criticism: Ã¢â¬Å"Although the object-centric approach seems more sensible for guaranteeing the rights of existence for all cultural heritage, and modern because it prioritizes the integrity of cultural heritage, it proves to be somewhat illogical and unrealisticÃ¢â¬ (Loulanski, 2006, p. 216). Cultural objects are inherently connected to human societies and histories, thus it is unproductive to view them outside of their natural context. Rather than regarding heritage as a set of cultural objects, it should be regarded in the light of public good it is able to create: Ã¢â¬Å"Increasingly cultural heritage is seen as a much broader phenomenon which can contribute to political ideals, to economic prosperity and to social cohesionÃ¢â¬ (Council of Europe, 2000, p. 3). Cultural heritage has been linked to national unity, citizenship, appreciation of diversity, cultural identity and memory, amenity, sustainable development and quality of life. Graham (2002) suggests Ã¢â¬Å"the concept of heritage as a social construction, imagined, defined and articulated within cultural and economic practiceÃ¢â¬ (p. 1003). In my view, functionalism is a more productive approach to cultural heritage protection. However, it poses dome difficulties for historical interpretation, since it denies the idea that cultural objects have value in their own right. Each nation has its own approach to assigning value to and defining functions of cultural objects. Thus, international community might disagree with interpretations suggested by nation stares. It imperative to separate historical interpretation from other forms of interpretation: Ã¢â¬Å"Historical interpretation must be based on a multidisciplinary archaeological and/or historical study of the site and its surroundings, yet must also indicate clearly and honestly where conjecture, hypothesis or philosophical reflection beginÃ¢â¬ (Pathways to Cultural Landscapes, 2002 p. 5). The solution to the problem is to engage all interested stakeholders in the process of historical interpretation, be they different groups within one society or different countries in the global community.
Monday, September 16, 2019
The soft wind whistled its melody in my ears, the sun shone brightly in my face as I skipped towards Bruce Castle Park with my sister Daniella, my brother Marcell and my Daddy. My sister was eleven, my brother was ten and I was seven, so I was the baby at the time. I was so excited to get into the park, I heard loads of screaming and shouting babies, toddlers and children, I saw a long queue at the ice-cream van. All I wanted to do was get into the park and join the fun. My sister, brother and I ran towards the park anticipating, leaving my dad strolling behind. I pushed open the black shiny gate to get into the park and dragged my brother and sister with me. The first thing that caught my eyes was the large swimming pool. There were plenty of children splashing, screaming and shouting in there; they looked like they were really enjoying themselves. I wanted to go and join in. I ran towards the fun, feeling excited. I heard my dad calling, but I ignored her because I wanted to get in the pool, even thought I didn't have my swim suit. My dad called me and told me to go back over to him, I was angry because I was so close to joining in the fun. As I walked towards my dad I kept on looking back at all the children enjoying themselves in the pool. When I got over to my dad he simply told me to take my sister to the pool with me because my brother and him were going to play football. My sister didn't want to play, so I agreed. Once again I made my way over to the pool, it looked so colourful because of all the different coloured swim suits. I told my sister how thrilled I was to go and play in the pool. She was also thrilled but explained to me that we could not get into the pool because we had no swim suits and no change of clothes. I was disappointed but concurred without any choice. We got to the pool and the atmosphere was great: loud, colourful and fun. All of the children were playing together. My sister and I looked at each other, grinned and hopped onto the inner pool edge, rolled up our trouser legs and began to walk around the inner edge of the pool. Other children told us to get in, but we couldn't, so we explained to them why, they were let down but accepted it. They were very nice and friendly children. Daniella and I wanted to dip out feet in so we had to be really careful and dip only put feet in. The water was as cold as ice, and clear like crystals, it felt so good. Daniella and I carried on walking around the inner edge of the pool. We were getting wet because of the children splashing, but that was no worry, because the sun was blazing hot and our clothes would dry in no time. I had a feeling that someone would pull us in or we would fall in, so I was careful with my every step. My dad yelled to us to come over and have some snacks and juice, my sister and I rushed so we could get back to the pool as soon as possible. We hurried back over to the pool as our new friends waited. Daniella and I carried on playing on the inner pool edge, but I began to get bored so I had a fantastic idea. I explained it to my new friends. The game was called bulldog. What you had do was my sister and I had to throw the ball and aim it at the people in the pool. Whoever it hit had to come on our team and help get the people in the pool out, leaving a winner. The game began and we were all enjoying it, Daniella and I were really skilled at getting people out. Round 1 of water bulldog had finished, so we decided to play Round 2. We had to be careful because the inner edge of the pool was socking wet. I aimed the ball at one of my friends in the pool and got him out, so he had to come and join my sister and I. My friend in the pool threw the ball to me but it was a short throw, so I tried to stretch and catch the ball, I felt myself stumble so I grabbed onto Daniella and we both fell into the pool and made a big splash! My sister and I looked at each other and exploded with laughter, it was like a laughing fit, we could not stop laughing. The water was freezing cold, I could feel my goose pimples rising all over my body. I struggled to get out of the pool as my clothes were dripping wet and dragging me back down into the pool. When I finally got out I helped my sister to get out as she was struggling too. We had to go and tell my dad what had happened, neither of us knew if he was going to shout or laugh, so we walked over in suspense. Daniella and I held each others hands tight as we left our footprints behind us. When we got to our dad and brother Marcell they were in stitches before we could tell our story. My sister and I were relieved. Dad asked us what happened so we both took it in turns to explain. They both kept teasing us after we had told them; it didn't bother us because we found it funny too. The sun was still sizzling hot like sausages on the fire, so my sister and I decided to lay down on the bright green grass and try and get our clothes dry. We laid there for approximately thirty minutes but our clothes didn't seem to be drying quick enough, so we told our dad that we were bored and wanted to go home. , so we did. Because out clothes were still wet Daniella had to wear my dad's vest, and I had to wear his t-shirt on the way home. They looked like dresses because they were down to our ankles, but it looked cute. Once again the giggles began, what an excellent end to a great day out.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Swing vs Steady a)Swing: Sales: 5000 Price per unit: $10 Variable Cost per unit: $2. 5 Fixed Cost: $35000 Current Profit: $ 2500 New Price per additional unit: 0 New Contribution Margin = New Price per unit Ã¢â¬â Variable cost per unit =$8. 5-$2. 5 =$6 New Sales unit @40% additional sales= 5000*40%= 2000 Additional profit @40% additional Sales = Additional Sales* New Contribution Margin =2000*6 =$12000 New Sales unit @20% additional sales= 5000*20%= 1000 Additional profit @20% additional Sales = Additional Sales* New Contribution Margin =1000*6 =$6000 Steady: Sales: 5000 Price per unit: $10 Variable Cost per unit: $5. Fixed Cost: $35000 Current Profit: $ 2500 New Price per additional unit: $8. 5 New Contribution Margin = New Price per unit Ã¢â¬â Variable cost per unit =$8. 5-$5. 5 =$3 New Sales unit @40% additional sales= 5000*40%= 2000 Additional profit @40% additional Sales = Additional Sales* New Contribution Margin =2000*3 =$6000 New Sales unit @20% additional sales= 5000*2 0%= 1000 Additional profit @20% additional Sales = Additional Sales* New Contribution Margin =1000*3 =$3000 Both the companies should enter the market as they are realizing additional profits by charging a lower price for the new market. )Swing : ? P =-1. 5 CM= Price- Variable Cost= $10-$2. 5 =$7. 5 % Break-even sales change= -? P/(CM + ? P) = 1. 5/(7. 5-1. 5) = 25% % Break-even sales change in units =5000*25% =1250 Total Break-even sales=5000+1250= 6250 Change in Profit for 40% increase in sales= (Sales change in units- Break-even sales change) * New contribution Margin =(2000-1250)*6 =750*6 =$ 4500 Steady: ? P =-1. 5 CM= Price- Variable Cost= $10-$5. 5 =$4. 5 New CM= New Price Ã¢â¬â Variable Cost= 8. 5-5. 5= 3 % Break-even sales change= -? P/(CM + ? P) = 1. 5/(4. 5-1. 5) = 50% % Break-even sales change in units =5000*50% =2500Total Break-even sales=5000+2500= 7500 Change in Profit for 40% increase in sales= (Sales change in units- Break-even sales change) * New contribution Mar gin =(2000-2500)*3 =-750*6 =- $1500 The answers differ from the answers in part a because in part a segmentation pricing is used whereas here the price is reduced for the entire product line. The change in the contribution margin for all the products is responsible for the change in profitability. c) Swing is better positioned to take advantage of this opportunity because with a 40% increase in sales at a price of$ 8. per unit, it incurs additional profits of $4500; whereas Steady incurs losses of $1500. If the companies share the market both the companies will have additional sales lower than the break-even sales resulting income lower than their current income. In such a case Steady will suffer far more losses. Low variable costs and hence lower contribution margins of Swing make the company more profitable in comparison to Steady for the sales of additional units. Since the market cannot be segmented, I would advise Swing to reduce its price and enter the market to acquire 40% ad ditional sales.Steady should overlook the new market and continue selling to the current market without changing its price. d) Break even sales change that would change the profits by the same amount as a reduction in price. Initial Contribution Margin= 10-5. 5=4. 5 Reactive breakeven = ? P/Initial CM =-1. 5/4. 5=- 33. 33% Thus a sales reduction of 33. 33% percent at initial price of $10 is equivalent to losses brought about by a price reduction of 1. 5. SteadyÃ¢â¬â¢s management believes that a price of $10 after Swings reduction to $8. 5 would have brought about 60% reduction in SteadyÃ¢â¬â¢s sales. Since 33. 33%
Saturday, September 14, 2019
When Ophelia tells her father of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"holy vows from heaven,Ã¢â¬ his harsh rebuke Ã¢â¬Å"springes to catch woodcocksÃ¢â¬ likens her to a game bird considered to be foolish. He later speaks of her as if she were nothing more than an animal; Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ll loose my daughter to himÃ¢â¬ (II. ii. 160) which again indicates his lack of respect for his daughter. He and Claudius were concerned only with Hamlet and so she becomes lost in a Ã¢â¬Å"sea of troubles. Ã¢â¬ Ophelia highlights key themes in the play, building on the ideas of deception, corruption and patriarchy that run through it. Two central themes of the play are deception and the problem of making a distinction between appearance and reality. Few things in the play are what they seem to be; Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are apparently HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s friends, but are in fact spies commissioned by Claudius. There is a play within Ã¢â¬ËHamletÃ¢â¬â¢ itself. Spying or eavesdropping occurs and Ã¢â¬Å"smiling villainsÃ¢â¬ referred to. The actions of Ophelia also highlight this idea in a variety of ways. Ophelia is also used to portray the theme by the use of imagery. Polonius instructs her to Ã¢â¬Å"read on this book, / that show of such an exercise may colour / your loneliness. We are oft to blame in this, / Ã¢â¬â¢tis too much proved, that with devotionÃ¢â¬â¢s visage / and pious action we do sugar oÃ¢â¬â¢er /the devil himselfÃ¢â¬ (III. i. 44-49). This shows how a holy face can be put on something to cover evil deeds. The expressions of love may appear truthful to Ophelia, who speaks of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËaffectionÃ¢â¬â¢ for her, but (if Polonius and Laertes are to be believed) in reality they may be false, concealing less honourable intentions. Polonius swears that the Ã¢â¬Ëtenders of (HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s) affectionsÃ¢â¬â¢ for her are mere Ã¢â¬Ëbrokers, not of that dye which their investments show / But mere implorators of unholy suits. Ã¢â¬ They may be traps, Ã¢â¬Ëspringes to catch woodcocks. Ã¢â¬Ë Ophelia also attempts to deceive Hamlet when she partakes in her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to discover the cause of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s unusual behaviour. She appears to be alone and lies that her father is Ã¢â¬Å"at homeÃ¢â¬ when in reality he is eavesdropping on their conversation. As previously discussed, Ophelia may only appear to be a naive, innocent maid and be, in reality, the very opposite. In addition, her true madness contrasts with and therefore highlights the false nature of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s. Hamlet comments upon how Ã¢â¬Å"God hath given you /one face, and you make yourselves anotherÃ¢â¬ and Ophelia does present various Ã¢â¬ËfacesÃ¢â¬â¢ to different characters, according to her relationship to them- acting innocent with her father, yet far less so in dealings with Hamlet. Hamlet also refers to the masking of reality by Ophelia when he says Ã¢â¬Å"I have heard of your paintings-Ã¢â¬ Hamlet believes that Ophelia may be deceiving him. If the interpretation that she commits suicide is correct, then the innocent imagery is another expression of the theme of illusion: her death appears to be an accident, but in reality is not. Through the play runs the idea of necessity of revenge for the cleansing of social corruption. This corruption is portrayed in OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s demise, which also hints at the downfall of Elsinore. Imagery Hamlet adopts in his first soliloquy implies general corruption of the world and he states that Ã¢â¬Å"things rank and gross in nature / Possess itÃ¢â¬ (I.ii. 136-137). He therefore aims to cleanse what is rotten in Denmark, but his failure to do so allows the triumph of disease and decay. Laertes warns Ophelia that Ã¢â¬Å"virtue itself Ã¢â¬Ëscapes not calumnious strokes,/ the canker galls the infants of the spring. Ã¢â¬ In addition to Shakespeare employing many images of disease and decay, he also includes several expressions relating to physical deterioration such as Ã¢â¬Å"the fatness of these pursy timesÃ¢â¬ (III. iv. 154) and Ã¢â¬Å"the drossy ageÃ¢â¬ (V. ii. 181). OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s own deterioration accentuates the theme but while all others perish due to their weaknesses, her demise is brought about by her virtues. Ophelia dies from loving too much and for being too pure. The potential of a stronger, wiser side to her character (hinted at by her comebacks at Laertes) is never realised. The coarse nature of the songs she sings in her madness shows that the corrupt world has taken its toll on the pure Ophelia. As discussed, throughout the play she represents innocence, emphasised by imagery and language. Her drowning depicts the death of innocence itself, thus indicates HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s failure and impending disaster for the court. It has been suggested that ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays Ã¢â¬Å"reflect and voice a masculine anxiety about the uses of patriarchal power over women, specifically about manÃ¢â¬â¢s control over womanÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality. i Ã¢â¬ (i Coppelia Kahn 1981 ManÃ¢â¬â¢s Estate: Masculine Identity in Shakespeare). This could indeed be true of Ã¢â¬ËHamlet,Ã¢â¬â¢ where the political world of Elsinore is shown not to be a place where women matter much, and this leads to their destruction. They do not have a say in anything; the world is presented as one where men are dominant and, if necessary, prepared to use women (even their own family) to benefit them in terms of power. Ophelia exemplifies this, confused by what is happening around her as she strives to do what Polonius, Laertes and Hamlet want her to. Polonius does not advise Ophelia to be true to herself as he advises Laertes, but points out that Hamlet has the freedom to do as he wishes whereas she does not. She is subject to the double standard of the difference between male and female freedom of choice and action. Laertes is treated very differently by his father in comparison to the lack of regard he shows Ophelia. OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes are never considered- women had little status. Gertrude, too, has limited influence. Claudius and Polonius wield the power. Both women die but OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s end bears particular significance because she is driven to it by events she cannot control. Her death indicates the corrupting effects of the male-dominated political realm of Elsinore, in which, as Polonius shows, there is little room for the consideration of love. All of the characters fail in the sinful world of Elsinore, where there is no possibility for a fulfilled life. OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s demise adds to ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s bleak message that evil can triumph. Defeat seems inevitable, whether they accept the conditions of Elsinore and live with the deceitful principles of the political world as Polonius does, or seek out love, as Ophelia does, or attempt to find sense in things, like Hamlet. In conclusion, through Ophelia a greater appreciation of other characters is achievable. She illuminates aspects of Hamlet- his suspicion of women and indecisiveness and, by comparison and contrast with her, also his strength, nobility and sanity. She gives insight into his nature both prior to and following his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death, therefore allowing the audience a better understanding of (and more sympathy for) him. Also revealed are aspects of Laertes and PoloniusÃ¢â¬â¢ characters. Shakespeare uses Ophelia to add more depth to the themes of the play, namely the dangers of patriarchy, illusion and corruption. It is through Ophelia that Shakespeare achieves a genuinely tragic response to the play Ã¢â¬ËHamletÃ¢â¬â¢.
Chronic kidney disease abbreviated as CKD is also referred to as the chronic renal failure and it is responsible for most cases of mortality and morbidity in the elderly in Australia (Wen et al., 2014). Moreover, CKD is associated with reducing the significant role of the kidney through causing damages and blockage (Vassalotti et al., 2016). Research shows that the period it takes for CKD to cause complete renal failure depends on the stages of CKD and the nursing interventions in place (Tonelli and Wanner, 2014). Notably, it should be made clear that chronic kidney disease has no cure, but early identification and application of nursing intervention as per Levett-Jones clinical reasoning cycle will help slow the progress and improve the patient's symptoms. As of the year 2005, the NHS reported that chronic kidney disease is at an alarming rate as most of the hospitals in the region reported to have increased renal replacement surgery (Gatchel et al., 2014). Also, according to Hung e t al., 2014 are of the opinion that chronic kidney disease increases the chances of cardiovascular complications. Again, a report by the WHO indicated that there would be high chances of chronic kidney disease in Australia for the next ten years and the likelihood of the cases leveling off are dismal due to the lifestyle of locals (mostly the native Australians) who are reluctant to seek medication from public hospitals (Collins et al., 2015). The underlying factor towards the behavior by most natives is cultural-based. The residents feel left behind regarding development and that the foreigners are interfering with their way of life (Tong et al., 2015). With that in mind, the case focuses on describing the care, management, and assessment interventions for Glenda, a 46-year-old woman who presents with chronic kidney disease. The previous medical history indicates the following symptoms generalized swelling of the face, hands, feet, and ankles. Also, she finds difficulty in walking due to stiffness and pain in her knee and elbow joints. Her current medical condition indicates increased body temperature of 38.8 degrees Celsius and increased blood pressure of 180/100 mmHg which relates to the high number of cigarettes consumed daily. As such, Glenda is taken to the emergency renal ward at Darwin hospital where she undergoes an X-ray, EUC, and ECG. After inserting a vas catheter, Glenda is scheduled for surgery in a week's time to have fistula formation in her left arm.Ã The condition makes Glenda admitted for almost twelve months a situation that makes her daughter Roseen uncomfortable. Later, the nurses, family, and friends organiz ed a meeting and ensure Glenda is discharged and receives medication from her home in Tiwi Island and undergo her dialysis at Renal Dialysis unit at Wurrumiyang clinic. As such, ideas in this article seek to critique the care, management, and assessment for Glenda at each stage of her chronic kidney disease. Notably, the paper will set a discussion on the evaluation of renal function. Furthermore, the article will offer a succinct summary of the ideas concerning the thesis statement as shown below. When Glenda first attended Wurrumiyanga clinic at her home in Tiwi Island, the doctors had to screen her kidney to identify any symptoms of chronic kidney disease due to the physical symptoms she presented (Diamantidis nd Becker, 2014). Also, Wen et al., 2014) are of the opinion that screening helps in prescribing medical intervention for CKD at stages 1-3 hence appropriate procedural processes in combating the condition. That said, the following test helped the doctor in assessing the renal functioning and impairment for Glenda: urinalysis-the test makes use of urine, and with the inclusion of a urine dipstick the nurses can determine the presence or absence of bacteria and casts on a microscope. Urinary protein excretion-the model analyzes urine after every 24 hours to measure the albumin-creatine ration abbreviated as ACR. An increase in the ACR shows a high risk for cardiovascular complications. Renal imaging-the technique pays attention to the shape of the kidney and checks the presence of cysts (Fang et al., 2014). Notably, the assessment model is of significant role in patients with CKD stages 4 and 5. Also, patients with stages 1-3 ought to undergo an ultrasound in case of reduced eGFR. Finally, renal biopsy a patient with stages 4-5 CKD is advised to undergo the assessment to check the level of proteinuria. Britt et al., 2013 are of the opinion that renal biopsy is of great value as the histological analysis provides nurses with information to know when and how to diagnose the impaired kidney failure. There are five stages of chronic kidney disease that Glenda is diagnosed with: ranging from stage 1-5. The evaluation model follows the in-depth analysis of Glenda's medical history which reveals her physical symptoms: swollen face, feet, and hands, social life showing her smoking and drinking habits, and her family history which records no case of CKD (Angeli et al., 2014). The post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis diagnosis at Royal Darwin Hospital indicates that there was thickening of the membranes due to the accumulation of protein in the glomeruli hence need for checking the blood glucose levels (Tonelli and Wanner, 2014). Moreover, it is important to control the blood pressure to reduce the risk of proteinuria. In addition, Glenda's medical history at the time of admission indicates hypertension as blood pressure beyond 140/90 mmHg is considered hypertensive. eGFR more than 89/ml/min/1.73m2 but is not less than 59ml/min/1.73m2 (albuminuria included) Urea and electrolytes including eGFR. Scheduled clinical and laboratory assessment. Also, the nurses in charge offer advice on lifestyle practices. When the eGFR is less than 59ml/min/1.73m2 The inclusion of dipstick in the sample of urine collected to test for urinalysis for proteinuria. Regular checking of blood glucose levels. Analysis of full blood count to check the level of Parathyroid hormone (Levey et al., 2015). Also, the nurse reviews medical history and administers new medication which acts as an anti-inflammatory medication. The collected urine is assessed to check for urinary symptoms, heart failure, and hypovolaemia (Levey et al., 2015). For efficient management of the different stages of CKD, it is of significant value to first identify the symptoms associated with chronic kidney disease. What is more is that the clinical signs for CKD remain unrecognized until there is acute renal failure (Stevens and Levin, 2013). That is to say that a patient can be asymptomatic at an advanced stage of the condition. Therefore, early identification sets a platform for integration of early interventions which aim towards assessment and management of the state. As such, the symptoms of CKD include but are not limited to loss of appetite, nausea, minor ankle edema, change in urine pattern, and fatigue (Jha et al., 2013). Also, it is wise for Glenda to have a balanced diet characterized with enough proteins. Regulate the blood pressure to less than 135/80mmHg. Besides, inhibitors can be induced to slow the effects of renal deformity. Notably, when the eGFR reduces to less than 25% of the baseline value, it is important to cease the ACR inhibitor and refer Glenda to a Nephrologist (Mills et al., 2015) Schedule a workout program starting with walking the progressively to jogging and running: aim at improving the aerobic rate. Monitor the drinking patterns of Glenda. First, start with reducing then progressively rehabilitate her by stopping the supply and access to alcohol. Flu vaccination and pneumococcal vaccination During admission, Glenda needs to hydrate t avoid dehydration. Also, the nurses in charge can describe an antiviral medication. After being discharged Glenda can as well as use prescribed cough suppressant. Reduce the consumption of sugary coca cola drink from 500ml a day to 250ml then after some time you cut short and provide safe source of sugars such as Drink a lot of water to avoid thirst. Ensure Glenda consumes less salt: especially adding raw salt to the food at the table. Reduce the intake of coca cola and later cut short. Significantly, the End-Stage Renal Disease abbreviated as ESRD is the term used to refer to patients who are responding to the treatment from acute renal failure (Wen et al., 2014). Also, ESRD is commonly known as stage 5 of CKD. What is more is the availability of shared ideas between amongst nurses, patients, and their families: the ideas help in making informed decisions aimed towards treating stage 5 CKD (Locatelli et al., 2013). As such, the table below provides a description to types of treatment for stage 5 CKD. If it is critical it may call for surgery. Also, the period may wait for up to 6 years in case of deceased donor Glenda will be free to work and live a normal life. Moreover, Glenda has increased rate of survival after the transplant is done. Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis(CAPD) Automated Peritoneal Dialysis (APD) During the day four bags are changed by the APD entails the overnight exchange of bags by a machine The treatment ensures Glenda has the freedom to work without disturbance of the urinary tract: due to the PD catheter. The CAPD allows for ample time during one-week training. The APD allows the nurse on duty to rest. Requires no dialysis or transplant. It can be managed at the community level (Wurrumiyanga clinic). Again, the model is supported by palliative care Emphasizes on mediation and balanced diet. Non-dialysis supportive care increases survival chances in elderly patients thus increased life expectancy (Model, 2015). The nurse in charge of Glenda is working extra hard to avoid further complications of the conditions. Therefore, educating Glenda, her daughter Roseen and the community as a whole will ensure the sustainability and ease of combating CKD (Diamantidis and Becker, 2014). Notably, the primary risk factor identified is the danger of reduced cardiac output. The condition is associated with inadequate pumping of the blood to the heart to facilitate metabolic processes. The related risk factors include but are not limited to: first, fluid imbalances resulting in a lapse in the current volume and heart workload (Mills et al., 2015). Second, there is the risk of increased deposits of urea and calcium phosphate blocking the baseline membrane. Thirdly, lapse and alteration in electrolyte balance. The nurse can prescribe medication after observing and assessing the presented physical symptoms. To establish desired outcomes for Glenda the table below shows the nursing intervention and the possible justification. Analyze heart and lung sound to evaluate presence of peripheral edema and cases of dysponea. Diagnosed with flu hence wheezes, edema, and dysponea Assess the degree of hypertension and blood pressure Renal dysfunction causes hypertension. Also, orthostatic hypertension occurs due to imbalances in the intravascular fluids. Assess the presence of chest pains paying attention to the location and degree of pain Lack of potential risk of pericardial effusion associated due to home dialysis. Assess heart sounds, blood pressure, and temperature Narrow pulse pressure, temperature above 37.5 degrees Celsius, and presence of irregular hypotension. Assess and evaluate the physical activity Dormant nature alludes to HF and presence of anemia Need to monitor and assess lab and diagnostic results Potassium, calcium, and magnesium electrolytes When imbalanced they affect the heart functioning by altering the electrical transmission Used in identification of soft-tissue calcification Administering antihypertensive drugs such as Apresoline: a hydralazine Useful in reducing vascular resistance and tension hence reduce myocardial workload. Also, useful in preventing HF. Reduce accumulation of urea. Again, corrects the electrolytes and fluid imbalances. To exclude the pericardial sacs as it may result in cardiac arrest through myocardial contractility. The burden of CKD led to the longer hospitalization of Glenda, and it is important to include multidisciplinary care clinics to improve service delivery (Gatchel et al., 2014). The approach integrates different health professionals and family members to offer long-term support to Glenda as shown below. Assess and evaluate etiology of GlendaÃ¢â¬â¢s CKD to determine the care plan (Diamantidis and Becker, 2014) Offer advice on nutritional intake and manage the intravascular fluid Provide education to Glenda regarding effectiveness of modern medication and herbal treatment Substitute Roseen on transporting the mother to hospital Educate Glenda about transplant before the surgery (Davison et al., 2015) Provides education regarding CKD and acute renal failure. Also, coordinates care with GlendaÃ¢â¬â¢s family and the locals. Less attention has been paid to monitor the role awareness has to CKD patients. Although early identification proves to be a mechanism to slow the progression of CKD and ESRD, there is a growing need for the establishment of a customer-oriented platform for nurses to exercise to administer patient-center to patients such as Glenda (Papademetriou et al., 2015). Also, encouraging Glenda to attend guiding and counseling sessions in Tiwi Islands will help boost her morale and change her perception of life. And it is known that once the mind is stimulated so does the endorphin hence the body relaxes. The model will allow Glenda get back to her feet and provide for her family. In nursing, providing care, assessing, and management of diseases is a plan that allows nurses to incorporate Levett-Jones cycle of clinical reasoning: a period that allows for an understanding of the patient's past medical history and ethnic background before commencing with data collection and administering medication. As for Glenda the condition grows and gets of hand hence the inclusion of interdisciplinary team approach to offer long-term support emotionally, physically, and medically. To that end, it is possible to discern that CKD cannot be treated, but approaches as integrating family members and the community help to slow its progress. Angeli, P., RodrÃ guez, E., Piano, S., Ariza, X., Morando, F., SolÃ , E., ... & Gerbes, A. (2014). Acute kidney injury and acute-on-chronic liver failure classifications in prognosis assessment of patients with acute decompensation of cirrhosis. Gut, gutjnl-2014. Britt, H., Miller, G. C., Henderson, J., Bayram, C., Valenti, L., Harrison, C., ... & O'Halloran, J. (2013). General Practice Activity in Australia 2012-13: BEACH: Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (No. 33). Sydney University Press. Collins, A. J., Foley, R. N., Gilbertson, D. T., & Chen, S. C. (2015). United States Renal Data System public health surveillance of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Kidney international supplements, 5(1), 2-7. Davison, S. N., Levin, A., Moss, A. H., Jha, V., Brown, E. A., Brennan, F., ... & Morton, R. L. (2015). Executive summary of the KDIGO Controversies Conference on Supportive Care in Chronic Kidney Disease: developing a roadmap to improving quality care. Diamantidis, C. J., & Becker, S. (2014). Health information technology (IT) to improve the care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). BMC nephrology, 15(1), 7. Fang, Y., Ginsberg, C., Sugatani, T., Monier-Faugere, M. C., Malluche, H., & Hruska, K. A. (2014). Early chronic kidney diseaseÃ¢â¬âmineral bone disorder stimulates vascular calcification. Kidney international, 85(1), 142-150. Gatchel, R. J., McGeary, D. D., McGeary, C. A., & Lippe, B. (2014). Interdisciplinary chronic pain management: past, present, and future. American Psychologist, 69(2), 119. Hung, S. C., Kuo, K. L., Peng, C. H., Wu, C. H., Lien, Y. C., Wang, Y. C., & Tarng, D. C. (2014). Volume overload correlates with cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease. Kidney international, 85(3), 703-709. January, C. T., Wann, L. S., Alpert, J. S., Calkins, H., Cigarroa, J. E., Cleveland, J. C., ... & Murray, K. T. (2014). 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol, 64(21), 2246-2280. Jha, V., Garcia-Garcia, G., Iseki, K., Li, Z., Naicker, S., Plattner, B., ... & Yang, C. W. (2013). Chronic kidney disease: global dimension and perspectives. The Lancet, 382(9888), 260-272. Levey, A. S., Becker, C., & Inker, L. A. (2015). Glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria for detection and staging of acute and chronic kidney disease in adults: a systematic review. Jama, 313(8), 837-846. Locatelli, F., BÃ ¡rÃ ¡ny, P., Covic, A., De Francisco, A., Del Vecchio, L., Goldsmith, D., ... & Abramovicz, D. (2013). Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines on anaemia management in chronic kidney disease: a European Renal Best Practice position statement. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 28(6), 1346-1359. Mills, K. T., Xu, Y., Zhang, W., Bundy, J. D., Chen, C. S., Kelly, T. N., ... & He, J. (2015). A systematic analysis of worldwide population-based data on the global burden of chronic kidney disease in 2010. Kidney international, 88(5), 950-957. Model, C. C. (2015). Standards of medical care in diabetesÃ¢â¬â2015 abridged for primary care providers. Diabetes care, 38(1), S1-S94. Papademetriou, V., Lovato, L., Doumas, M., Nylen, E., Mottl, A., Cohen, R. M., ... & Cushman, W. C. (2015). Chronic kidney disease and intensive glycemic control increase cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Kidney international, 87(3), 649-659. Stevens, P. E., & Levin, A. (2013). Evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease: synopsis of the kidney disease: improving global outcomes 2012 clinical practice guideline. Annals of internal medicine, 158(11), 825-830. Tonelli, M., & Wanner, C. (2014). Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Lipid Guideline Development Work Group Members. Lipid management in chronic kidney disease: synopsis of the kidney disease: improving global outcomes 2013 clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med, 160(3), 182. Tong, A., Crowe, S., Chando, S., Cass, A., Chadban, S. J., Chapman, J. R., ... & Johnson, D. W. (2015). Research priorities in CKD: report of a national workshop conducted in Australia. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 66(2), 212-222. Vassalotti, J. A., Centor, R., Turner, B. J., Greer, R. C., Choi, M., Sequist, T. D., & National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. (2016). Practical approach to detection and management of chronic kidney disease for the primary care clinician. The American journal of medicine, 129(2), 153-162. Wen, C. P., Matsushita, K., Coresh, J., Iseki, K., Islam, M., Katz, R., ... & Astor, B. C. (2014). Relative risks of chronic kidney disease for mortality and end-stage renal disease across races are similar. Kidney international, 86(4), 819-827.